From the Pali Canon to the Platform Sutra

Mount Fuji, Painting

What is reality? What is the best way to live in harmony with reality? These two main questions have been in the forefront of philosophical discussions ever since. Ch’an Buddhism is of course no exception: These were the main questions Buddha at the root of Buddhism had in mind and these were the questions the Ch’an Masters in China pursued too. Although the understanding might be the same, their names are different. Buddhism or no Buddhism, higher or lower Buddhism, these are just labels. If there is one reality and if men can understand this reality, then various contemplatives at different times might do so. If they do, this understanding unites them. It seems that there have been many contemplatives throughout history that understood reality and it appears that they have been labelled very differently. So perhaps we should just leave the labels away.

At the top, the mountain looks the same from all sides. If this is so, then the thoughts of wise contemplatives are in the essence the same and their similarities outnumber the differences. Of course, not being on the top makes it difficult to see these similarities clearly, but there is one decisive decision to be made: To look upward to the top of wisdom and to undertake the attempt to identify the similarities or to look downward in the deep valley of ignorance and to highlight the differences. If we think, that Buddha and Hui-neng have been looking at the top and if we think, that the Pali Canon and the Platform Sutra have not been completely spoiled throughout time, then there is a high probability to find some of these similarities. At the top, probably nobody is absorbed with labelling and duality-construction.

From the Suttas of the Pali Canon to the Platform Sutra

Between Buddha and Hui-neng we have probably about 1100 years that include a complex history of transformation. Furthermore the Pali Canon and the Platform Sutra available to us today went trough an even longer time of transmission that might have led to significant distortions. And finally, they are both interpreted on the basis of translations. Although all this is true, it was the same reality both of the contemplatives had in front of them. Assuming their deep understanding we might be able to discover the identities that lie behind terms and concepts.

Although the problem of human existence is not discussed explicitly within the Platform Sutra, the concordance with the Pali Canon is easy to identify. Suffering is not elaborated in particular, but the main dimensions of problem description can be found in both treatises: Suffering [1] as stain or taint [2] of the three unwholesome mental states ignorance, desire and aversion [3] caused by craving and grasping or clinging and attachment. Although the term ‘stain’ plays a more prominent role in the Platform Sutra the term ‘taint’ can be found in the Suttas too. Thus we find the term ‘asava’, which can be translated as taint mentioned in multiple Suttas. But if we look behind terminology and concepts, if we leave the term ‘stain’ or ‘taint’ and the concept of Buddha nature behind us, if we look at the essence that lies behind these terms, then the parallel becomes even more obvious. While the Platform Sutra prefers the term ‘stain’ the Suttas favor the term defilement (kilesa) to refer to ignorance, desire, aversion and their derivatives. But stains can also be seen as defilements and defilements as ‘inside stains’. Taking this in consideration the parallel goes even further, because the Platform Sutra mentions the ‚stains on the originally pure mind’, while the Suttas mention the ‚stain on the mind’. Thus the idea underlying the doctrine of Buddha nature can even be found within the Suttas. The three unwholesome mental states named ‘taint’ or ‘defilements’ play an equal important role in both of the treatises and ignorance is seen as the root problem in both of the tracts. Thus we found a broad range of Suttas exploring the defilements individually or in general and the related terms are omnipresent in both versions of the Platform Sutra too. Furthermore both of the treatises have in the essence the same understanding: Ignorance consists of wrong views about the fundamental nature of all that exists - that is described in the perspectives of emptiness and the three universal marks - and of delusions that arise from the continuous mode of thinking – about the things arising in mind and about the self. But let’s discuss this in detail later. The cause is mainly described with the terms of craving and clinging in the Suttas, while the Platform Sutra prefers the term attachment. Although the Suttas use craving and clinging as terms, the term craving is at the forefront, as the doctrines of the Four Noble Truths and dependent origination indicate. While craving means to have an inclination for something that can grow into a desire, clinging is a kind of spasm related to this desire. Thus the process starts with the inclination that grows into desire and leads to a spasm. The term attachment definitively corresponds to clinging. So the question arises, if the difference in focus between craving and attachment implies a substantial difference? I think the question is definitively no! Although there is a preference for attachment in the Platform Sutra, the elaboration of the psychological process shows, that the first part of the casual chain is the grasping. It is the grasping of the things arising in consciousness that leads to the thought process and to attachment. This grasping at the beginning of the chain is what is described as craving in the Pali Canon. Thus the use of the term attachment is not as precise as craving in this aspect, but it was probably the overall context that set the wording. Furthermore both of the treatises stress, that craving and clinging have two effects: Immediate suffering and binding to birth and death. This is shown by the essential doctrines of the Four Noble Truth and dependent origination in the case of the Pali Canon. In the Platform Sutra we find multiple instances that show the interconnection of attachment and suffering and there are at least two passages, where it is said, that it is the attachment or clinging that leads to the ‘cycle of birth and death’.

As we have seen, ignorance is identified as the root problem in both of the treatises. Furthermore both describe ignorance as a combination of wrong view and delusion. So let’s have a closer look, if ignorance is really understood the same way. While the Platform Sutra uses the terminology of emptiness to describe the fundamental nature of our existence, the Suttas of the Pali Canon offer the perspectives of the middle way, of emptiness and of the three characteristics, with a favour for the latter terminology. These three perspectives are at the ultimate level one: The middle between existence and non-existence, emptiness and impermanence are nothing more than different descriptions of the fundamental nature of reality. Independent how we look at it, regarding this aspect both of the treatises are saying exactly the same thing. The middle way and emptiness perspectives of the Suttas correspond to the emptiness concept of the Platform Sutra, which relies on the philosophy of the middle way. But also the predominant perspective of the three universal characteristics exemplifies the same essence. Selflessness is a synonym for emptiness and impermanence is just the ‘other side of the medal’. As we have seen unsatisfactoriness depends on the craving and clinging and is thus not as universal as the characteristics of impermanence and selflessness. But nevertheless, this unsatisfactoriness can be found in the Platform Sutra too, although it’s not explained as a fundamental characteristic of reality, but as a consequence of emptiness. Though all this is true, there is a significant difference in the deepness of elaboration. While the Suttas seem not to analyse the background of these three perspectives, the Platform Sutra offers a very detailed elaboration. This elaboration seems to be based on the relation of language and reality. The continuous refinement of view shows, that emptiness is not only a characteristic of particulars, but one of properties and terms too. But this seems to be no difference in substance, but only a different grade of analysis. The very same consequences can be deducted from the Suttas too.

Delusion is mentioned as second component of ignorance in both of the treatises. While delusions arise ‘trough the continuous mode of thinking’ in the Platform Sutra, they originate from the ‘ignorance about the self-nature’ in the Suttas of the Pali Canon. The delusions described in Suttas are rooted in the self-view that leads to a myriad of thoughts about the ‘I’ now and in the future. Thus a concrete idea of the ‘I’ will be created. The clinging to this idea then leads to the desire for things that conform wit the self-view and to an aversion for things that do not conform. The delusions elaborated in the Platform Sutra originate from the thinking about the things that arise in mind. Thus the spasm of desire and aversion evolve from the judgement of phenomena. What might look quite different at the first sight, is perhaps more similar then expected when analysed. Although the wrong thoughts derive once from the self and once from the things arising in consciousness, they have the same root: The misunderstanding about the fundamental nature. In the case of the Suttas applied to the self, in the case of the Platform Sutra applied to the phenomena. But the interconnection goes much deeper than that! Because the thoughts about the things arising in consciousness, the judging of things as good and bad, derive from the self-view that is central to the Suttas. The judging is based on a comparison of the view on oneself with the things that arise. Upon a fit desire, upon a contradiction aversion arises. Thus the Suttas just show the same from another perspective. While the Platform Sutra elaborates the problem from the angle of the phenomena, the Suttas do it from the angle of the self. But although different perspectives are chosen, they address the ultimately same problem. If I would not create an idea about the self, there would be no basis to judge things as positive and negative and hence no delusion would arise from the continuous mode of thinking. If no delusions arise from the continuous mode of thinking it means, that there is no comparison of self-view with phenomena and hence probably also no self-view.

The five aggregates and the six sense media are the concepts underlying human psychology in both of the treatises. Thus they share the view that a human being consists of the five aggregates of form, feeling, perception, fabrications and consciousness and that there are six sense realms that interconnect the six consciousnesses over the six internal sense-media with the six external sense-media. The essential part for the description of the problem of human existence and the path to end suffering, is the process that underlies human perception and conception. So let’s see, if the Platform Sutra and the Suttas of the Pali Canon share a common process? Both of the treatises agree, that it is trough contact that perception, feeling and intention arise in consciousness. It seems, that they also agree, that these factors co-arise simultaneously and exist together in every moment of consciousness as always-present mental factors. Furthermore they appear to share the view that this co-arising corresponds to a passive process, which is pre-rational and hence does not involve thought. Thus they agree, that there is a continuous passive and pre-rational flow of perceptions, feelings and intentions arising in consciousness. This appears to represent the unchangeable nature of human existence that is given to us. Thus the essential and decisive question is, if there is a free will and when this free will comes into play? They seem both to agree, that there is a free will in the form of the reaction to the continuous flow of perceptions, feelings and intentions: We can either grasp the things arising in mind or we can let them vanish again. This is of course not an absolute freedom, but a freedom that can be achieved trough the practice of the paths proposed. If we grasp the sign and if we initiate a thought process, we change from a passive pre-rational mode into an active and rational one. Although the following conceptual process seems not to be elaborated in the Suttas, the basic constituents appear to be the same. The Suttas mention a process from a simple thought towards evaluation, which seem to correspond to the process of classification, judgement and interpretation that we can deduct from the Platform Sutra. The imaginative thinking - that can follow as a further escalation of delusion - seem not to be mentioned explicitly in the Suttas, but might be involved in the delusions deriving from the self view. But they both seem to agree, that there is delusion within the rational process following the passive reception. While the Suttas describe these delusions as arising from the wrong self-view, the Platform Sutra stresses the wrong view about the phenomena arising. But as we have seen recently, these to perspective relate to the same fundamental problem. Thus the consequence is the same: We have strong opinions about the things arising as we judge them as good and bad, as positive and negative. And these strong opinions finally lead to a spasm in form of the main afflictions – desire and aversion – and their derivatives. Thus what has been a craving, when one grasped the sign, has grown into clinging or attachment. Because clinging and attachment is associated with tremendous suffering, it is seen as the main problem of human existence in both of the treatises.

The Platform Sutra highlights, that there is at the ultimate level only one teaching and one vehicle, but that the application of skilful means requires different vehicles at the mundane level. This message is of course highly reflected in the nature of the Pali Canon itself. The reason why we have an accumulation of that many Suttas explaining the same things from many different perspectives is exactly the application of skilful means. As different Suttas explicitly emphasise, Buddha was very well aware of the differences between people and therefore adjusted his teachings to their capabilities. But having the constituents and the mechanism of the Noble Eightfold Path and Chan’s Sudden Path in front of us, the parallel goes probably much deeper. Firstly, it appears obvious that the basic constituents of wisdom, discipline and meditation are the same in both paths. Of course, they are explained with different connotations and in Ch’an’s Sudden Path wisdom and meditation play a much more prominent role than discipline. But the first aspect is rooted in different terminologies, while the latter seem to rely on the application of skilful means. Secondly, it appears that there is a perfect match between the gradual process explained in the Kitagiri Sutta and the Vehicles described in the Platform Sutra. ‘Visiting, growing close, hearing and remembering’ corresponds to the small vehicle (seeing, hearing and reciting), ‘understanding and agreement’ to the middle vehicle (awakening and understanding), ‘will, contemplation and exertion’ to the great vehicle (practicing) and ‘realisation of ultimate truth and seeing’ to the supreme vehicle (passing through the ten thousand things, being fully equipped with the ten thousand practices and not separating from all things). Furthermore we have realised, that the gradual process described in the Kitagiri Sutta corresponds to the sequence of the Noble Eightfold Path. What does this mean? This means that the different vehicles described in the Platform Sutra can be found as sequence within the Noble Eightfold Path. It means, that the supreme vehicle described within the Platform Sutra corresponds to the last sequence of the Noble Eightfold Path. What is this last sequence about? It is about ‘insight meditation’, about the ‘combination of insight and samatha’, about the sudden ‘breakthrough from the conditioned to the unconditioned’ and about final deliverance and ‘liberation’. What is Ch’an’s Sudden Path about? It is about ‘prajna-samadhi’, about the ‘unity of wisdom and meditation’, about the ‘sudden enlightenment’ and final deliverance. Although we will find differences upon search, it seems obvious that these are two exemplifications of the same essence. The Sudden Path is for beings ‘of great wisdom and high capacities’ that have acquired ‘merit without bonds’. How do we acquire these prerequisites? With the practice of the Noble Eightfold Path up to the last sequence: Great wisdom with mundane panna, boundless merit with sila and high capacities with samadhi. So it seems, that the Platform Sutra describes the way to final deliverance for beings that came into existence with the needed prerequisites or that acquired them previously. It seems, that the reference to the one and only vehicle at the ultimate level is the reference to the Noble Eightfold Path.

If this thesis is true, then the constituents mundane panna and sila should be considered as prerequisites within the Sudden Path. Further the emphasis should be on the practices included in the constituents of samadhi and supramundane panna. In consequence we will first search for evidence regarding the prerequisite and secondly focus our analysis on the comparison of samadhi and supramundane panna with the constituents of the Sudden Path. Before we do all this, let’s first spend some thoughts on the entrance of the path. Although on a different level, the Platform Sutra describes a complete path with a beginning and an end. Therefore an initiation procedure marks the beginning. As within the Noble Eightfold Path this initiation consists of taking refuge and the acceptance of precepts. The refuge in the three jewels of the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha belongs to the initiation into both of the paths. At the place of the precepts of the Noble Eightfold Path we find different components in the Sudden Path. Since they are mainly related to sila, which is considered as prerequisite, this is consequent and in line with the thesis. Probably because the Sudden Path starts at a different level, the entrance procedure is more elaborated and seems to require much more commitment from the initiates. Thus we find for example the four great vows to save all sentient beings, to cut off all passions everywhere, to study all Buddhist teachings everywhere and to achieve the unsurpassable Buddha Way. The careful consideration shows, that these vows incorporate the essence of mundane panna. ‘To cut of all passions everywhere’ includes the constituents of right intention and ‘to study all Buddhist teachings everywhere’ obviously leads to right view. This is supported by the fact, that the teachings included in mundane panna appear to be presumed in the Platform Sutra. Thus we find no elaboration of karma or dependent origination, but multiple references to the underlying process of ‘birth and destruction’ and to the mechanisms that binds, respectively unbinds from it. Are mundane panna and sila considered as prerequisite in the Sudden Path? Three significant arguments we just saw within the discussion of the entrance. A fourth indication can be found in the fact, that boundless merit is mentioned as a prerequisite for the entrance into the Sudden Path. It means, that a very high level in the practice of sila has to be accomplished first. This seems to be the reason why sila is considered as a main constituent, although there it is no elaboration what it should be and how it should be practiced. A fifth indication might be found in the circumstance, that the key principle underlying right intention is presumed in prajnaparamita and even mentioned as the reason, why it is called great: The principle not to cling nor not to throw away evil and good.

After we saw, that there are significant arguments that are supporting the thesis, lets undertake the attempt to get more evidence with the comparative analysis of Ch’an’s Sudden Path with the constituents samadhi and supramundane panna of the Noble Eightfold Path. The careful comparison of the ‘samadhi of oneness’ described in the Platform Sutra with the ‘samadhi’ described in the Suttas of the Pali Canon shows an impressive concordance: There is a similar base on which the practice has to rely on, an equal problem that arises out of this base, a very similar practice to be applied and a corresponding result to be achieved. The base is described as “successive thoughts that do not stop and follow one after the other without cessation” within the Platform Sutra and as ‘arising of thoughts’ within the Suttas. Although we find not a comparable description within the Suttas, it is quite obvious that there is a base of experience consisting of perceptions, feelings and mental formations that arise in consciousness. So it seems, that we have in both of the cases a base, which is caused by our very existence and which appears as an experience of the things we get in contact with. Without the practice of the ‘samadhi of oneness’ a process of judgment and interpretation arises out of the flow of thoughts, without the application of ‘right mindfulness’ the mind is constantly judging and interpreting the things that arise in consciousness. This process is in both of the descriptions “supported” by the creation of assumptions and judgement. The result of this mental construction can be described as a ‘overrunning of the original thought by ideation’ and as ‘obscuring of the direct experience by thoughts'. The thoughts that cover the base are in both of the cases not corresponding to reality and are as such delusions. These delusions are the cause for the defilements, out of the delusions the passions are produced. So in both instances the inappropriate reaction to our experience leads to delusions that act as a cause for unwholesome mental states. As we have seen, in both of the treatises delusions and wrong views play an important role. But there seems to be a difference in the emphasis of explanation. While the Platform Sutra appears to focus more on the delusion, the Pali Canon seem the emphasis more on the wrong view. But this is of course no difference in substance. Both treatises cover delusions and wrong views, both appear to interrelate them and both offer distinguishable remedies: Panna and prajnaparamita against the wrong views, samadhi and samadhi of oneness against delusions. Being able to eliminate the delusions one has to practice ‘right energy & mindfulness’ and ‘no-thought’ respectively. With ‘right energy & mindfulness’ one is ‘withdrawn from sensuality and unskilful qualities’ and one is ‘stilling directed thoughts and evaluations’. With no-thought one ‘stops to think the myriad of things’ and ‘casts away all thoughts’. This leads then to the seeing of the always-pure substance or own nature in the terminology of the Platform Sutra and to the “purity of equanimity & mindfulness” in the words of the Suttas.

Before we move on to the comparison of prajnaparamita and supramundane panna, let’s compare the practical dimension of meditation, which we described relying on the Satipatthana Sutta in the case of the Pali Canon and relying on the Zazen-gi in the case of the Platform Sutra. As it is noted in the Secrets of the Lotus, there are striking parallels between these two manuals: “The reader of the Zazen-gi will note similarities with the Satipatthana Sutta of Theravada Buddhism. In both cases there are instructions to withdraw to a quiet place, assume a meditation posture and begin by concentrating on respiration. The intention of this meditation practice is also similar in both texts, namely, to be aware of the arising and passing away of all phenomena.” So let’s have a closer look at the similarities of the manuals themselves and the parallels that can be found within the exposition of contemporary meditation masters. Both of the treatises seem to be based on the assumption that we are living an illusionary world, in a world of illusion and ignorance respectively. Why? Because the mind is filled ‘with so-called instinct, habit, thought, intellectual judgement’, because we have the habit to ‘interpret and to explain everything we encounter’. Therefore we must transform our senses (including the mind) being able to perceive the truth’ or ‘the real self’ respectively. Insight meditation thus aims to establish an observation without interpretation, while za-zen meditation targets a state where one does not think about the things arising. Doing this, one will have a pure understanding or wisdom, one will find the real self beyond ignorance. So in both of the cases the non-thinking about the things arising in mind will lead to the elimination of ignorance, to the achievement of wisdom. It is trough the simple perceiving of the origination and passing away of phenomena, that one realises the truth. While the Satipatthana Sutta offers a meditation manual with the step-by-step progression from meditation object to meditation object, the Zazen-gi simply instructs us to see the arising and passing away of all phenomena. This is of course no difference in substance, but one in the detail-grade of instructions. The results of practice are summarised with understanding and quietness in both of the cases. Thus the Zazen-gi states: “He would become quiet, clean, and joyous. The clouds of illusions and delusions disappear, the mind becomes clear like the blue sky.” And from the Satipatthana Sutta we can comprehend, that the seeing leads to the understanding of the fundamental nature of reality and that the detached observing leads to a state of calmness. A final important aspect shared is the question, where meditation should be practiced. Here the Zazen-gi mentions that one has to meditate in all live-activities and from the meditation objects of the Satipatthana Sutta it becomes obvious, that meditation can’t be restricted to the cushion only.

The comparison of prajnaparamita with supramundane panna indicates a high concordance too. As we have seen previously, both of the paths share the view about the universal characteristics of reality. Although there is a different emphasis in terminology - the Platform Sutra favours the terminology of ‘emptiness’, while the Pali Canon prefers the ‘three essential marks of reality’ - they describe the ultimately same reality. Thus the ‘key understanding’ about reality appears to be the same in both of the paths. Finally it seams, that they have a very similar function too. While the ‘full understanding of the three marks causes a break-trough and the attainment of Nibbana’ in the case of the Noble Eightfold Path, the ‘understanding of the all-encompassing characteristic effectuates the overcoming of the thirty-six confrontations and the achievement of enlightenment’ in the case of the Sudden Path. Even in the description of this final state the parallels are obvious. While the Platform Sutra talks about self-enlightenment and the enlightenment to the own original nature, the Suttas of the Pali Canon state, that one can now claim to have directly awakened to the unexcelled right self-awakening. Thus even the self-enlightenment finds its correspondence in the self-awakening of the Suttas. Finally the treatises offer descriptions of final deliverance that exemplify the same transcendence: The overcoming of the fundamental problem, the destruction of the concurrent existence and the passage beyond this life. Thus it is stated in the Maha-parinibbana Sutta: „Destroyed is birth; the higher life is fulfilled; nothing more is to be done, and beyond this life nothing more remains“. And the Platform Sutra concludes: “The passions are destroyed, the troubles of the five skandhas comes to an end and the other shore is reached”.


Having the Suttas of the Pali Canon and the Platform Sutra in front of us, there are perhaps different misunderstandings possible. Looking from one angle one might think, that the path described in the Platform Sutra is something completely different from the Noble Eightfold Path and has therefore nothing to do with Buddhism. Following this thought one might get to the conclusion, that Ch’an in no Buddhism. Looking from another angle one might think, that the Noble Eightfold Path is something inferior, while Ch’an’s Sudden Path is perceived as something superior. Following this view one might get to the conclusion, that there is a lower and a higher Buddhism. The two views ignore some important observations we made throughout the elaboration and comparison of the two paths.

The basic question of this thesis has been, whether the Pali Canon and the Platform Sutra share their view on reality and consequently propose paths that are ultimately identical. Being able to properly answer this question we had to look behind language. Doing this we often quickly found out, that they both share the same essence, although different terms were used to describe it. But to look behind language was not enough. There were cases, where we not only had to look behind terms, but also behind concepts. Thus we often had to understand the interrelation of problems and the different angles from which a problem could be described and targeted. Doing this, things that appeared to be very different first, could be identified as being essentially identical. Although Buddhist philosophy is very well aware of the dangers involved when using language and concepts, it appears that this wisdom has been forgotten quite frequently in the history of Buddhist thought. Despite the fact, that philosophical discussions could have a positive effect on the development of thoughts, they probably often were and still are too dogmatic to do so. Thus a lot of energy has been lost for unnecessary fighting between sects about differences that ultimately do not exist.

The Noble Eightfold Path and Ch’an’s Sudden Path appear to share the same view on reality: The mechanism of dependent origination as fundamental law of our existence, impermanence or emptiness as all-encompassing characteristic and suffering as universal problem of human existence. Human psychology is built on the same concepts and the essential process of perception and conception is shared too. Consequently they are both oriented towards the same goal to eliminate suffering with the eradication of ignorance and attachment. The practice towards this goal relies on the same constituents of virtue, meditation and wisdom. These constituents possess not only the same labels, but appear to be identical in their essence and to share very similar practices too. And finally and most importantly, they seem to be related to each other: The careful analysis has indicated, that Ch’an’s Sudden Path has a very high concordance with the last step of the Noble Eightfold Path. As such it appears to be an instance of the same path for beings ‘of great wisdom, high capacities and boundless merit’ and is therefore a wonderful example of skilful means.

This conclusion is of course no surprise but what we would expect, when we look up to the summit of the mountain we would call ‘existence’. If we rely on the assumptions that there is one reality and that this reality is understandable - and those seem to be the assumptions Buddhism relies on - then the most advanced climbers will have the same in front of them, when they reach the summit. Although this is true, they will describe their view with different languages, terms and concepts. They will give similar but not identical advices to their fellows, because they are living in different cultures. They will recommend distinguishable but not significantly different means, because they live at different times. But it’s the same law of gravity, the same mountain and the challenges to climb to the top remain essentially the same. The authors at the root of the Suttas of the Pali Canon and the Platform Sutra seem to have reached the same position, what we assume to be the summit of human existence.

Extracts from Bruno Steiger: The view on reality and the way to end suffering, From the Suttas of the Pali Canon to the Platform Sutra, Khlong Ngae, Thailand


Primary literature

  • Philip B. Yampolsky: The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch, The Text of the Tun-Huang Manuscript, New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1967
  • John R. McRae: The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch, Taishō Volume 48, Number 2008, Berkeley: Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, 2000

Suttas from Pali Canon available under

  • AN 2.19, Kusala Sutta
  • AN 2.30, Vijja-bhagiya Sutta
  • AN 3.62, Bhaya Sutta
  • AN 3.70, Muluposatha Sutta
  • AN 3.126, Katuviya Sutta
  • AN 3.130, Lekha Sutta
  • AN 3.134, Dhamma-niyama Sutta
  • AN 4.10, Yoga Sutta
  • AN 4.170, Yuganaddha Sutta
  • AN 4.199, Tanha Sutta
  • AN 5.177, Vanijja Sutta
  • AN 5.198, Vaca Sutta
  • AN 6.63, Nibbedhika Sutta
  • AN 7.11, Anusaya Sutta
  • AN 7.12, Anusaya Sutta
  • AN 7.6 , Kodhana Sutta
  • AN 8.39, Abhisanda Sutta
  • AN 8.40, Vipaka Sutta
  • AN 8.43, Visakhuposatha Sutta
  • AN 9.36, Jhana Sutta
  • AN 10.13, Sanyojana Sutta
  • AN 10.71, Akankha Sutta
  • AN 10.92, Vera Sutta
  • AN 10.176, Cunda Kammaraputta Sutta
  • AN 11.1, Kimattha Sutta
  • AN 11.2 , Cetana Sutta
  • Dhp 3, Yamakavagga
  • Dhp 188-, Buddhavagga
  • Dhp 277-, Mahavagga
  • Dhp 335-, Tanhavagga
  • DN 2, Samaññaphala Sutta
  • DN 15, Maha-nidana Sutta
  • DN 16, Maha-parinibbana Sutta
  • DN 21, Sakka-pañha Sutta
  • DN 22, Maha-satipatthana Sutta
  • Iti 1-8, The Group of Ones
  • Iti 14, The Group of Ones
  • Iti 15, The Group of Ones
  • Iti 50, The Group of Threes
  • Iti 88, The Group of Threes
  • Iti 93, The Group of Threes
  • Iti 100, The Group of Fours
  • Khp 1, Khuddakapatha Suttas
  • Khp 9, Karaniya Metta Sutta
  • MN 7, Vatthupama Sutta
  • MN 9, Sammaditthi Sutta
  • MN 18, Madhupindika Sutta
  • MN 21, Kakacupama Sutta
  • MN 28, Maha-hatthipadopama Sutta
  • MN 43, Mahavedalla Sutta
  • MN 44, Culavedalla Sutta
  • MN 70, Kitagiri Sutta
  • MN 117, Maha-cattarisaka Sutta
  • MN 148, Chachakka Sutta
  • SN 1.69, Iccha Sutta
  • SN 1.71, Ghatva Sutta
  • SN 3.23, Loka Sutta
  • SN 11.4, Vepacitti Sutta
  • SN 11.5, Subhasita-jaya Sutta
  • SN 12.15, Kaccayanagotta Sutta
  • SN 12.2, Paticca-samuppada Sutta
  • SN 12.23, Upanisa Sutta
  • SN 12.48, Lokayatika Sutta
  • SN 12.64, Atthi Raga Sutta
  • SN 12.65, Nagara Sutta
  • SN 12.67, Nalakalapiyo Sutta
  • SN 22.1, Nakulapita Sutta
  • SN 22.45, Anicca Sutta
  • SN 22.47, Samanupassana Sutta
  • SN 22.48, Khandha Sutta
  • SN 22.56, Parivatta Sutta
  • SN 22.57, Sattatthana Sutta
  • SN 22.79, Khajjaniya Sutta
  • SN 22.122, Silavant Sutta
  • SN 22.56, Parivatta Sutta
  • SN 22.95, Phena Sutta
  • SN 22.100, Gaddula Sutta
  • SN 27.1, Cakkhu Sutta
  • SN 27.2, Rupa Sutta
  • SN 27.3, Viññana Sutta
  • SN 27.4, Phassa Sutta
  • SN 27.5, Vedana Sutta
  • SN 27.6, Sañña Sutta
  • SN 27.7, Cetana Sutta
  • SN 27.8, Tanha Sutta
  • SN 27.9, Dhatu Sutta
  • SN 27.10, Khandha Sutta
  • SN 35.80, Avijja Sutta
  • SN 35.85, Suñña Sutta
  • SN 35.205, Vii.naa Sutta
  • SN 36.21, Sivaka Sutta
  • SN 41.3, Isidatta Sutta
  • SN 42.11, Gandhabhaka Sutta
  • SN 45.1, Avijja Sutta
  • SN 45.8, Magga-vibhanga Sutta
  • SN 45.171, Ogha Sutta
  • SN 47.13, Cunda Sutta
  • SN 47.14, Cunda Sutta
  • SN 45.8, Magga-vibhanga Sutta
  • SN 56.11, Dhammacakkappavattana
  • Thag 6.12, Brahmadatta
  • Thig 12.1, Punnika
  • Ud 5.1 , Raja Sutta
  • Ud 5.5, Sona Sutta

Secondary literature

  • Bhikkhu Bodhi: The Noble Eightfold Path - The Way to the end of suffering, Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1999
  • Bhikkhu Bodhi: Going for Refuge & Taking the Precepts, Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1981
  • C. Willemen, B. Dessein & C. Cox: Sarvastivada Buddhist Scholasticism, Leiden; New York; Koeln: Brill, 1998
  • C. Willemen: From Where Did Zen Come? Dhyana in the early Buddhist Tradition, Calgary: The University of Calgary, 2002-2003
  • Donald K. Swearer: Secrets of the Lotus – Studies in Buddhist Meditation, Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1997
  • Eshin Nishimura: Zen training in Donald K. Swearer: Secrets of the Lotus - Studies in Buddhist Meditation, Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1997
  • Geshe Tashi Tsering: Buddhist Psychology – The foundation of Buddhist Thought, Somerville: Wisdom Publication, 2006
  • Louis de la ValléePoussin: Abhidharmakośabhasyam Volume 1, Asian Humanities Press, Berkeley: 1991
  • Louis de la ValléePoussin: Abhidharmakośabhasyam Volume 2, Asian Humanities Press, Berkeley: 1991
  • Louis de la ValléePoussin: Abhidharmakośabhasyam Volume 3, Asian Humanities Press, Berkeley: 1991
  • Mumon Yamada Roshi: Lectures on Zazen-Gi in Donald K. Swearer: Secrets of the Lotus - Studies in Buddhist Meditation, Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1997
  • Nyanaponika Thera: Buddhist Publication Society: Buddhist Dictionary Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines, Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1998
  • Nyanaponika Thera: Abhidhamma Studies – Researches in Buddhist Psychology, Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1976
  • Paul Williams: Mahayana Buddhism – The Doctrinal Foundations, London: Routledge, 1989
  • Ven. Dhammasudhi: Discourses in Mindfulness in Donald K. Swearer: Secrets of the Lotus - Studies in Buddhist Meditation, Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1997
  • Ven. Dhammasudhi: Foundation of Mindfulness in Donald K. Swearer: Secrets of the Lotus - Studies in Buddhist Meditation, Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1997