Arthur Schopenhauer was a German philosopher and university teacher. Schopenhauer designed a doctrine that encompassed epistemology, metaphysics, aesthetics, and ethics in equal measure. He saw himself as a disciple and perfecter of Immanuel Kant, whose philosophy he saw as a preparation for his own teaching.

“The World as Will and Representation” is the name of the two-volume magnum opus of Arthur Schopenhauer, on whose completion the author worked all his life. Thus the edition history of the work spanned a period of forty years during his lifetime. In the handwritten legacy there is a note by Schopenhauer, which has often been interpreted as a expression of that "one thought": "My whole philosophy can be summarized in the one expression: the world is the self-knowledge of the will."


Arthur Schopenhauer (1788–1860) was a German philosopher known for his unique and often pessimistic views on life, human nature, and existence. He was born in Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) and came from a wealthy family. Schopenhauer's philosophical ideas were influenced by Eastern philosophies, particularly Buddhism, as well as by Immanuel Kant's philosophy.

Schopenhauer pursued a career in academia and published his major work, "The World as Will and Representation," in 1818. However, his work initially received little attention during his lifetime. He taught at the University of Berlin for a short time but faced academic challenges and conflicts.

Despite his lack of academic success, Schopenhauer continued to develop his philosophy, which emphasized the dominance of the will as the driving force of human behavior and the underlying reality of the world. He believed that suffering was an inherent part of existence and that individual desires led to perpetual dissatisfaction.

Schopenhauer's philosophical ideas gained more recognition later in his life, especially after the publication of the second edition of his major work in 1844. His writings attracted the interest of prominent figures like Friedrich Nietzsche and Richard Wagner. Schopenhauer's views on pessimism, individualism, and the nature of reality influenced a range of subsequent philosophical and cultural movements.

In his later years, Schopenhauer enjoyed a modest degree of fame, but he remained a solitary figure, often at odds with the academic establishment. He continued to write and revise his works until his death in Frankfurt in 1860.

Arthur Schopenhauer's life was characterized by his pursuit of philosophical insights that challenged conventional wisdom and his exploration of the nature of human existence. While he may not have achieved widespread recognition during his lifetime, his ideas have left a lasting impact on philosophy, psychology, literature, and the arts.

Arthur Schopenhauer Texts, Tubes & Books